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Recently Lapita pottery was excavated on Aneityum, which gives archaeological evidence that the ancestors of Aneityum's population arrived some 3,000 years ago. 

Later in the island's history, the social organization became more complex and hierarchical and was supported by complex irrigated taro fields that cover the island. Today, sophisticated ancestral gardening techniques to improve soil fertility continue to be practised. 

The island of Aneityum once supported some 6,000 people, and as the population has now surpassed 1,000 people, the Aneityumese continue to have a close and vital relationship with their island home--an island that many consider being their first ancestor and a sentient being.

The people there have a special custom dance called “Namauyang” which is performed only during a death ceremony from within a chiefly rank.