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Tafea, the southernmost province of the six in Vanuatu, is an acronym (the name) deriving from the five islands that make up the region: Tanna, Aneityum, Futuna, Erromango and Aniwa.

The province has a population of 32,540 people and an area of 1,628 km². The main island, though second to Erromango in land size, is Tanna, with some 80 percent of the province population, with the provincial capital of Isangel, and the largest village of Lenakel, both close together on the southwest coast.

The three larger islands are Melanesian, but the smaller two, Aniwa and Futuna, also known under the collective term Erronan Islands, are Polynesian outliers. Futuna is sometimes called West Futuna to distinguish it from Futuna Island, Wallis and Futuna.

The island of Tanna has the world's most accessible volcano, Mount Yasur, at 1,084 meters the highest peak of the province. Aniwa Island is the only coral island, the other four are volcanic and reach much higher elevations than Aniwa.

Aneityum is the southernmost island of Vanuatu (not counting the remote, tiny and uninhabited Matthew and Hunter Islands, 280 to 335 kilometres (174–208 miles) to the southeast, which are disputed with New Caledonia, but which are considered by the people of Aneityum part of their custom ownership). Its southeastern cape Nétchan Néganneaing is the southernmost point of land in Vanuatu.

The latter, however, is surrounded Intao Reef, that extends even further south, albeit submerged, thus being the southernmost feature of Vanuatu.